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Peanut

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Peanuts, groundnut, groundnut plant, oilseed

Description

Groundnut is an oilseed derived from the fruit of the groundnut plant. It is referred to as a nut in general terms but it is not a nut exactly in actual terms, it is a seed rather and is also known by the name of peanut. The groundnut plant is an annual plant herb that comes from the pea family of Fabaceae. The plant has feather type leaves; yellow flowers and grows a legume shaped fruit that has 2 to 3 seeds which develops inside the earth. Also, oil is obtained from the groundnut seeds that is an excellent source of vitamin E, various fatty acids and carbohydrates and is largely used as a cooking medium, lighting fuel and food constituent.

Peanut is one of the major oilseed of India grown mainly in Western and southern part of the country. Its production depends heavily on weather conditions and prices of other competing crops. Peanut is also referred as Groundnut. India is the one of the largest producer and exporter of peanut besides China, Argentina, U.S., Vietnam. Peanut is mainly sown during May-June and the meal is normally available for export by mid-November. The seeds are crushed to obtain oil and oilcake which is further solvent extracted to obtain its meal.

  • Crop: Peanut crop is generally harvested during Sep-Oct period in India.
  • Producers: Besides India, China, Argentina, US and Vietnam are other major producers of peanut in world.
  • Uses: Peanuts are used for direct consumption while oil is used in cooking. Meal is used in animal feed.
  • Exports: India's major export is of peanuts and peanut meal.
  • Importers: Far East Asia, Gulf and EU are the major buyers for peanut kernels while China, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam are major importers of peanut meal.
  • Peanut prices mainly depends upon the production, export demand and prices of other oilseeds and edible oils. Peanut meal prices mainly move in conjuction with rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

Production of groundnut in India

India has been producing groundnut since it has been introduced in Asia in the 16th century. The weather in the Indian subcontinent suited well to the crop and India transformed into an important contributor to the world production. The country ranks 2nd in the world groundnut production scenario with an annual groundnut seed production of 5.9 million tons and annual groundnut oil production of 1.5 million tons in 2005. Also, India has the maximum area covered under groundnut cultivation. The major states in India that are indulged in the production of this crop along with their production figures are

  • Gujarat (2.5 million tons)
  • Tamil Nadu (1 million tons)
  • Andhra Pradesh (1 million tons)
  • Karnataka (0.5 million tons)
  • Maharashtra (0.5 million tons)
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Orissa
  • Rajasthan

The Indian production and area covered is largely concentrated in the above-mentioned states. Today, groundnut has a share of approximately 25% in the total Indian oilseed production. But this share is constantly reducing since India got independent, as it was around 70% in 1950s.

Uses

Peanuts are found in a wide range of grocery products.

Edible peanuts account for two-thirds of the total peanut use in the United States. Popular confections include salted peanuts, peanut butter (sandwiches, candy bars, and cups), peanut brittle, and shelled nuts (plain/roasted). Salted peanuts are usually roasted in oil and packed in retail size, plastic bags or hermetically sealed cans. Dry roasted, salted peanuts are also marketed in significant quantities. Peanuts are often a major ingredient in mixed nuts because of their inexpensiveness compared to Brazil nuts, cashews, walnuts, and so on. The primary use of peanut butter is in the home, but large quantities are also used in the commercial manufacture of sandwiches, candy, and bakery products. Boiled peanuts are a preparation of raw, unshelled green peanuts boiled in brine and typically eaten as a snack in the southern United States where most peanuts are grown. More recently, peanuts can be fried, where they can be eaten both shell and nut. Also peanuts are used in cosmetics, nitroglycerin, plastics, dyes and paints (See George Washington Carver).[9]

Major trading centers of groundnut

The major trading centers of groundnut and derivatives in India are

  • Rajkot (Gujarat)
  • Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
  • Gondal (Gujarat)
  • Junagarh (Gujarat)
  • Mumbai (Maharashtra)
  • Indore (Madhya Pradesh)
  • Delhi
  • Adoni (Andhra Pradesh)

Also, groundnut is traded in Indian commodity exchanges namely, National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange ltd, National Multi Commodity Exchange of India ltd, Multi Commodity Exchange of India ltd, The Rajkot Seeds oil & Bullion Merchants` Association Ltd and The Bombay Commodity Exchange ltd.

Though India has more area under groundnut cultivation than China, the production is less as yields are low because the crop is mostly grown under rain fed conditions

State

Area (Million ha)

% of Total Area

Production (Million tonnes)

% Of Total Production

Yield (kg/ha)

% Irrigated Area

Gujarat

1.92

30.00

2.71

37.59

1412

9.60

Tamil Nadu

0.77

12.08

1.33

18.48

1724

35.00

Andhra Pradesh

1.69

26.42

1.25

17.32

739

17.30

Karnataka

0.86

13.36

0.60

8.32

702

20.20

Maharastra

0.43

6.70

0.49

6.82

1147

26.70

In India, 70% of the groundnut area and 75% of the production are concentrated in the four states of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Most of the irrigated area under Groundnut is in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra.

Distribution of Groundnut

The major groundnut growing countries in Asia are given in the Table.

Country

Area(000 ha)

Production (000 mt)

Yield (kg/ha)

China

5,125

13,448

2,623

India

8,000

7,500

938

Indonesia

683

1,377

2,016

Myanmar

730

730

1,270

Pakistan

100

106

1,060

Thailand

132

132

1,517

Vietnam

240

400

1,665

The major groundnut growing countries in Africa are given in the Table.


Country

Area (000 ha)

Production (000 mt)

Yield (kg/ha)

Chad

480

450

938

Ghana

350

450

1,286

Malawi

206

158

767

Nigeria

2,800

2,700

964

Senegal

900

900

1,000

Sudan

1,900

1,200

632

Uganda

211

150

711

Nigeria has more area under groundnut cultivation and also production in Africa followed by Sudan. Some groundnut growing countries in north and central America are given in the Table.

Country

Area (000 ha)

Production (000 mt)

Yield (kg/ha)

Argentina

156

316

1,348

Brazil

85

177

2,082

Mexico

62

75

1,204

US Of America

531

1,880

3,540

The groundnut area in these countries are small. The yields are very high in U S of America for the reason that groundnut is cultivated under irrigation with best management practices. This indicates the potential of the crop under good management.

Peanut Meal

  • Peanut meal / Groundnut Extraction is considered as high protein meal for it contains 45%-50% of protein in it. Peanut meal is a very good vegetable protein for animal feed whereas peanut kernels are used for direct consumption..
  • General Specification of Indian peanut meal:
    Protein: 45% min Sand/silica: 2.5% max Fibre: 12% max Moisture: 10% max
    Bedi port on the western coast of India is the major port of export for this meal.

Peanut Meal Markets

  • Far East Asia, Gulf and EU are the major markets for peanut kernels. For peanut meal China, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam are the major buyers and for year 2006-07 Chilean market also had good demand. Peanut oil is exported in limited quantity but right now govt. of India has put ban on export of edible oils.

Peanut oil

Peanut oil is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flavor and its relatively high cooking temperature. Its high monounsaturated content makes it heart-healthy and resistant to rancidity. There are several types of peanut oil including: aromatic roasted peanut oil, refined peanut oil, extra virgin or cold pressed peanut oil and peanut extract. Studies have shown that refined peanut oil is safe for peanut allergic individuals because the protein is destroyed during the processing. In fact, refined peanut oil is exempt from allergen labeling laws.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 31 January 2012 23:51

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